Food Labels .. what you need to know and what to watch out for!

November 29, 2015

If you’re like me, your shopping expedition includes the detective work of reading food labels.


image: shutterstock



Where and how you source your food shopping is such an important factor in gaining and maintaining optimal health for you and your family. With clever marketers working their magic to entice us to buy their products, buying healthy is tricky business. You must learn to look through the pretty pictures and misleading claims, and instead read the fine print to ensure your shop is a healthy one.


Read on to be equipped with important food label reading skills. It will save you time and give you the confidence to know you’ve made the best choice for you and your loved ones.


Where to start


Buying whole foods, such as fresh vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, dried legumes, eggs and fresh meats is the healthiest option when purchasing foods to make up your daily meals. There are times however, when you will need to resort to purchasing items that are canned, bottled and packaged, so here I will shed some light on creating the best possible food choices by reading food labels correctly.


Turn it over


The front of food labels lack any nutritional information. To really know what the food item is made up of, you should turn the food item over and take a squiz at the back, or side label.


Here you should firstly look at the Ingredients List and second the Nutritional Information Panel. The ingredients list, should ultimately be made up of foods that you recognise as healthy and you would otherwise eat separately in your diet.


Would you use these ingredients to make something up at home? If not, leave it on the shelf.


What to avoid


Foods listed first on the ingredients list are the most abundant ingredients within that food item. Other ingredients are listed in a descending order of weight. Scan through the list to identify any nasties.


  • Sugar


Sugar can be found on the ingredients list as Brown sugar*, Corn syrup*, Dextrose, Disaccharides*, Fructose*, Fruit (any kind), Glucose, Golden Syrup*, Honey, Lactose*, Malt*, Maltose*, Mannitol*, Maple syrup, Molasses, Monosaccharides*, Raw sugar*, Rice Malt syrup, Sorbitol*, Sucrose*, Stevia and Xylitol (look for birch derived).


Avoid food items where these sugars* are featured high on the ingredients list. Although high amounts of any sweetener is too much of a good thing, the other sweeteners listed above have a lower impact on your blood sugar levels, insulin production and therefore are better option to look for.


  • High Fructose Corn Syrup and Agave


These are extremely high in fructose (around 70-90%) and therefore contribute to insulin resistance and liver damage.


  • Trans-fats/ Partially Hydrogenated Oils


Used to enhance the flavour, texture and shelf life of foods, trans-fats are an altered form of unsaturated fat, which the body cannot recognise. Known toxic effects in the body include heart disease, obesity, diabetes, age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s, compromised immune system, cancer, fertility problems with both men and women and low birth weight babies.


You can identify trans-fats on the ingredients list of foods such as fried foods, pastries, baked goods, margarine, vegetable shortening, chips, microwave popcorn, chocolate drink mixes, powdered milk, long life milk, powdered egg and frozen dinner meals.


Look out for on the ingredients list: vegetable oil, shortening, margarine, hydrogenated oil and/ or partially hydrogenated oil.


Also keep foods containing highly refined, rancid (damaged) industrial seed oils, on the shelf. This includes soy, vegetable, cottonseed, sunflower, safflower oil, wheat germ, corn and canola oil.



  • Additives


Food Additives have been linked to many health conditions, including behavioral issues, hormonal imbalance, psychiatric problems, cardiovascular conditions, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Food products, which contain any of the ingredients below, should be avoided.


  • Potassium Bromate

You’ll find this one in many white flours and baked goods.


  • Common Food Dyes, including colours:

102/ Tartazine

129/ Allura Red

104/ Quinoline Yellow

132/ Indigotine

107/ Yellow 2G

133/ Brilliant Blue

110/ Sunset Yellow

142/ Green S

122 Azorubine, Carmoisine

143/ Fast Green FCF

123 Amaranth

151/ Brilliant Black

124 Ponceau, Brilliant Scarlet

155/ Brown HT

127/ Erythrosine

160b/ Annatto


200-203/ Sorbates

210-213/ Benzoates

220-228/ Sulphites

249-252/ Nitrates and Nitrites (preservatives in meat).

280-282/ Propionates


310-312/ Gallates

319-321 / TBHQ, BHA, BHT


  • Flavourings:

620-625/ Glutamates and MSG

Note: these are commonly hidden in other ingredients such as autolyzed yeast, textured protein, gelatin, “natural flavors”, barley malt and soy sauce.


  • All artificial sweeteners:


Cyclamate/ Sweet n Low

Aspartame/ NutraSweet/ Equal

Acesulfame-K/ Sunett





  • Genetically Modified Foods:


In Australia, products must contain the label “Genetically modified”, next to the particular food, if they have been grown in a way that involves genetic modification.


Eg. ‘Genetically modified soybeans’/ ‘Soybeans’ (genetically modified). Exemptions unfortunately have been made by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. You can get more information about these exemptions on the Food Standards website:

  • Cotton and canola (NSW, VIC and WA) are genetically modified crops, which are grown in Australia.

  • Imported GM foods include soybeans, corn, rice, potatoes and sugar beet.


The safety of these foods is still up in the air, as they have not been around long enough to undertake long term health studies. Best to stay well away!



What you want:




Whole foods such as nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables have natural levels of fibre, therefore will always be a healthier option than processed foods. If you’re picking up a packaged item (lets hope it’s a super food bar of some sort), grab for those that contain fibre, to help with blood sugar regulation as well as regulating a healthy digestive system. Aim for 5gm or more fibre per 100gm of food item.


The Good Fats


Look for the good fats! On the Nutrition Information Panel, you want to see omega 3 fatty acids (found in fish, leafy greens, walnuts, pumpkin, chia, flax and grass fed meats), some omega 6 fatty acids (found in grain, nuts and seeds), omega 9 fatty acids (found foods such as avocado, macadamias, sesame and olives, as well as saturated fats fund in coconut, ghee, butter, cheese and animal fat), as the featured fats in your food item. No, that was not a typo- saturated fats are extremely nourishing for your body, including your brain, hormonal, digestive, immune and cardiovascular system relying on their existence, for proper function. 


Omega 6’s (from grains, seeds and nuts) are however pro-inflammatory and generally consumed in indulgence in a westernised diet. To get the most nutritionally from omega 6’s, aim for a 1:1 ratio with omega 3’s in your diet.


If the food item has been heated during processing, the nutritional benefits of omega 3’s, and omega 6’s and omega 9s, found in nut and seed oils, as well as olive oil, will likely be overwhelmed with dangerous trans fats.  The exception is our favourite coconut oil!

Trans-fats, or partially hydrogenated oils, are damaging to your health, so keep foods labeled including them, well away from your shopping basket. Look for any level of trans fats on the Nutritional Information Panel (NIP). Low levels of trans-fats can unfortunately still be present, without levels having to be stated on the NIP label. This is why it is important to look for listing of partially hydrogenated oil, hydrogenated oil, margarine, and/ or vegetable shortening on the ingredients list, as well.





For optimal health, avoid relying on packaged powders, canned and/ or bottled foods for your daily protein. Instead aim to receive adequate protein over the day, from wholefoods such as eggs, wild caught fish, free range poultry (best organic), grass fed meat, and if your digestion permits, soaked seeds such as quinoa, buckwheat and amaranth, as well as legumes. In times when fresh protein is not available, look for smaller tinned or jarred fish, such as anchovies and sardines.


Everyone is individual with what proteins they will function best on. Experiment and listen to your body.  


Looking further:


On the Nutritional Information Panel, look for these ones:


  • Salt (Sodium)


Not all sodium is bad for you.  When sodium is balanced out with other minerals, as it is in vegetables and meats, along with unprocessed Himalayan, Peruvian Pink, or Celtic Sea salt, this type of salt is nourishing and required for good health.


Sodium added to canned, bottled or packaged foods, will often be processed, bleached sodium chloride and added in levels that far out weight our recommended daily intake. When looking at food labels, be aware that, the total recommended daily intake of salt for an adult (added to meals, in any pre made foods, and used in your own cooking) is 2300 mg sodium. Many people however are sodium sensitive, therefore they should limit salt consumption to around 1000mg sodium daily.


Keep an eye on this by looking for the sodium per 100gm of food item on the Nutritional information Panel.


Note 1 tsp of salt is equivalent to 2400mg sodium. This adds up very quickly when eating take-away, dining out, eating packaged, canned and bottled foods. To balance this out concentrate on consuming plenty of potassium rich foods in the form of all fresh vegetables (particularly green leafy’s), avocado, banana, nuts and sunflower seeds.


  • Sugar


As previously discussed, opt for food items that contain natural sugars. The next step is to aim for those foods with the lowest amount of sugar, per 100gm. Optimally, 5gm per 100gm, on the Nutrition Information Panel is a healthy amount that will prevent inflammatory producing blood sugar and insulin surges.


  • Marketing ploys


Watch out for clever marketing hype that may trick you, the consumer, into believing the product is healthy, but really has no benefit to your health.


  • “Natural”/ “All natural ingredients”/ “100% natural”

  • “No artificial preservatives”. Instead the product most probably contains real preservatives!

  • Images of health foods such as vegetables and fruits on the label. To be sure you know what is in the product, you must read labels.

  • “All Organic”/ “Organic”. You must look for the organic certification to be sure the product is free from antibiotics, growth hormones, pesticides, chemicals and irradiation.

  • “Local”. You once again need to look at the label to see if any of the ingredients are imported. Buy from local farmers markets and stores, which support them, for the best assurance of a true local product.

  • “Active cultures”, “beta-glucan”, “plant sterols”, “vitamin enriched”, when the food item is also riddled with sugar, salt, trans-fats, and other additives. Often companies try to distract your attention with clever enticing health wording. A common one being margarine titled ‘rich in plant sterols’, however is loaded with detrimental trans-fats.

  • “No/ Low cholesterol”. Cholesterol itself is not an issue within foods, as this has little impact to the dangerous oxidized cholesterol levels in the blood. Sugars are a more important to watch for (in the ingredients list).

  • “Fortified”/ “Added vitamins and minerals”. These are synthetic and do not make an unhealthy food any healthier. Opt for your fresh, wholefoods to gain a generous amount of your daily-recommended vitamin and mineral content.

  • “Sugar free”, as these items are likely to contain dangerous artificial sweeteners.

  • “Low fat” or “fat free”, as these products will naturally contain more sugar per 100gm/ml of food item.


Check out the label for better health


Although importance lies in buying predominantly whole foods, when you are next in need to grab a few ‘convenience’ packaged, bottled or caned foods, use this information to help you buy the healthiest food option for your loved ones.



Kasey is a qualified Naturopath and Nutritionist who runs a busy Adelaide based clinic ‘Aloe Health’. For Kasey, Nutrition is such a fundamental part of achieving true health. With a special interest in digestive and hormone health and through her clinic, speaking, writing and online projects, Kasey aims to educate many others to reach their health and happiness potential.


To keep up to date with what Kasey's up to on socail media and what she's writing about, check out the links below:




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